世界各国对SCI的看法总汇
发布时间:2017/10/26 10:26:38 浏览次数:960
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  我们是磨刀石,让您有一把锋利的镰刀收获科研成果!
  时至今日,国人对SCI和影响因子(Impact Factor)的看法已出现巨大差异:有奉若神灵无条件接受者,有嗤之以鼻破口大骂者,也有像余老师这样有条件接受者。我以为SCI是一部好经,原本可以度人度物,结果被念歪了,变成了紧箍咒!招致了不满和批评!
对SCI的支持和反对,可以说是公说公有理婆说婆有理!即使包青天在世恐怕也一时难以决断!今天,我们为大家整理了一下世界各国对SCI的看法,希望通过对这些看法和事实的了解,可以帮助我们每个人形成自己对SCI理解和看法!
基本上可以得出:SCI崇拜是一个全球化的现象,并非局限于中国。
  美国和加拿大
  在美国和加拿大,晋升以及工资都有赖于研究人员论文的发表情况。美国专家还认为,基金评委也应用这种定量的文献计量学工具(即SCI影响因子),因为它提供了一个客观的、可行的方法评价基金申请者的研究成果。著名的加州大学旧金山分校(UCSF)也非常看重影响因子的评价功能。2013年旧金山宣言(San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment)提倡不再使用影响因子作为评价个人学术贡献的工具(说明以前在使用)。
  (1)Incentives for faculty to publish have a longhistory in the United States and Canada. Promotion and tenure, as well ascompensation, depend to a considerable extent on a faculty member's publicationrecord [1].
  (2)quantitativebibliometric tools seem to offer an objective, measurable way to ascertainresearcher performance[2].
  (3)According to Blake Gurfein in University of California, San Francisco, “my institution(UCSF) also emphasizes the JCR impact factor.
  (4)IF for academicappointments and funding is more important in Europe than in North America.More than 50% of anesthesiologists agree that IF needs to be improved[3].
  (5)The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessmentpublished in 2013 advises that we should no longer use "journal-basedmetrics, such as journal impact factors, as a surrogate measure of the qualityof individual research articles, to assess an individual scientist’s contributions,or in hiring, promotion or funding decisions." (See attachment).)[4].
  英国
  四大医学期刊BMJ的执行主编说,英国和其他地方的大学都用影响因子来确定基金的分配。英国早在1986年就率先采取用SCI文章的影响因子来评价研究水平,并将其作为职称晋升的指标。有一位英国医学院的院长在私人场合要求其手下不要向影响因子小于7的期刊投稿。英国2008年的Research Assessment Exercise (RAE)完全受影响因子主导。


  (1)In the UK (and elsewhere) university funding is awarded on the basis of impactfactors (research assessment exercise)(Kamran Abbasi,Acting editor of BMJ).
  (2)When the impact factor was introduced into theUK research assessment exercise (which compares the quality of research indifferent universities), one medical school dean wrote to all academicsinstructing them not to submit papers to any publication with an impact factorof less than seven (personal communication)[5].
  (2)He reveals that in the UK, some universityadministrators multiply the number of articles by the IF of the journal, anduse this as a criterion for promotion. He also reports that administrators ofthe Institute of Nuclear Physics at UniversityCollege, London asked that IF for each academic staffmember be reported. Eston (2004) observes that although the United Kingdom's(UK) Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) of 2008 would be guided by IF alone, IFwould unlikely be used to assess the quality of research[6].
  德国
  德国政府根据高影响因子论文的多少来决定基金资助的数目;研究机构及大学根据科研人员发表论文的影响因子高低决定职称的晋升和奖金的发放。德国科学医学组织协会(AWMF)也推荐在SCI影响因子的基础上评估学术成就。
  (1)Germany and Spainmade reforms in the mechanisms that regulate access to university careers,promotion, and salary, linking them more tightly to international publications.In Germany, reforms were made that allow universities to link salaries toresearch performance[7].
  (2)In Germany, Abbasi (2004) explains that “theChief specialist is one notch below God or one notch above, with junior staffpromoted on a whim or shunted to a deadend post in a flash of irritation.”[6]
  (3)The Association of the Scientific MedicalSocieties in Germany (AWMF) also uses its recommendations to evaluatescientific achievement on the basis of the IF[8].
  日本和韩国
  四大医学期刊BMJ的执行主编说,在日本人们到处都炫耀自己的影响因子有多少。研究人员的地位取决于有多少高SCI影响因子文章,晋升时甚至被要求列出发文期刊的SCI影响因子。大学教授的晋升严重依赖于影响因子。日本的期刊进入SCI被认为是非常重要的事情。
  韩国政府2006年规定:以第一和通讯作者的身份在重要期刊上发表论文能得到3000, 000韩元(约2800美元)。
  (1)In Japan people walk around boasting oftheir own individual impact factor(Kamran Abbasi, Acting editor of BMJ).
  (2)In Japan, theimpact factor is quite important. Your status in the ?eld is dependent on howmany reports you have published in high impact factor journals. Moreover, incases when the journal is not listed on PubMed, the journal is looked downupon. (Japanese scientist interviewed by Roland, Frass, and Bernhard, 2002)[9]
  (3)In Japan, promotion is aided by applicants listing journal IF beside the references intheir citation list. It has been observed that IF is hindering advancement inJapan'sacademia for good clinicians with little basic science research experience(Abbasi 2004). Appointment committees at their universities are often heavilyinfluenced by journal IF (Cameron 2005) [6].
  (4)This year animpact factor has been assigned to the of?cial English journal of the JapanSociety of Ultrasonics in Medicine. We are delighted that our journal can beinternationally recognized as important one in this academic ?eld[10].
  (5)SouthKorea would be rewarding researchers $3,000 for publishing papers in 'elite'journals [7].
  新加坡和马来西亚
  在新加坡,医学院管理者都采用SCI影响因子作为评价其各部门的学术生产力的重要工具。
  马来西亚科研机构对SCI影响因子极为热衷,工作及报酬都有赖于SCI影响因子。
  In Singapore, medical school deans and administratorshave adopted IF as a measure of quality of the academic efforts of individualsfaculty and the academic productivity of medical school departments, althoughthere are already serious questions about the validity of the use of IF forthese purposes (Rogers 2003)[6].
  According to Munvar Shaik in University of ScienceMalaysia,“Why the scientific community is so crazy about Impact Factors (IF)? Thegrants, the scientific jobs everything now rely on IF”, he said in ResearchGate[11].
  印度和巴基斯坦
  早在2002年,印度学者Bachhawat就提出了“影响因子综合征”这一概念,“Impact Factor Syndrome”. 印度的研究人员如果在Science or Nature上发文,就会得到奖金或加薪。
  在巴基斯坦,科学家们在他们的年度累积SCI影响因子的基础上获得奖金,数额在1,000至20,000美元之间不等。
  In some developing countries, publishing in top-tier journalshas extra appeal; researchers in China and India sometimes receive bonuses orsalary increases when they get papers into Science or Nature[12].
  In Pakistan scientists can receive between $1,000 and$20,000 on the basis of their annual cumulative impact factors[13].
  西班牙与丹麦
  西班牙调整大学职位、晋升以及待遇的机制,使之与国际刊物的发表相关联,建立了一个专门的国家机构来评价年轻研究人员的成果并决定是否予以雇佣或晋升。
  在意大利,相对可观的SCI影响因子被用于改善容易受“主观”影响的学术地位的认定。
  In Spain, the same practice obtains as in the UK (Abbasi2004)[6].Spainmade reforms in the mechanisms that regulate access to university careers,promotion, and salary, linking them more tightly to international publications.In Spain, a national agency was put in place to assess the performance of youngrecruits and to decide tenure and promotions[7].
  In Italy, IF is advocated as a means to remedy“purported subjectivity and bias in appointments to higher academic positions.”[6]
  挪威、比利时、丹麦和土耳其
  挪威、比利时和丹麦在过去十年中开始了类似德国和西班牙的政策来分配研究经费。
  土耳其在2008年成立了专门的国家机构来搜集本国论文发表数据,并规定每篇文章奖金相当于研究人员平均工资的7.5%。
  Norway, Belgium, Denmark, and Italy startedsimilar policies during the past decade for allocating a share of the budget[7].
  Turkey introduced in 2008 anational agency that collects publication data and, for each article, pays acash bonus equivalent to ~7.5%of the average faculty salary[7].
  澳大利亚和新西兰
  澳大利亚和新西兰也效法英国来改革科研基金分配制度,让研究成果多的研究机构优先得到更多的资源配置,从而为其吸引更为优秀的科学家创造条件。
  Australia and New Zealand drew on the RAE toput in place policy reforms for funding academic institutions wherebybetter-performing institutions receive more funding than lower-performing onesand, thus, have more resources to compete in the job market for scientists[7].
参考文献
[1]P. E.Stephan, S. G. Levin. Careerstage, benchmarking and collective research. International Journal of TechnologyManagement, 2001, 22(7): 676-687.
[2]R.Iyengar, Y. Wang, J. Chow, D. S. Charney. Anintegrated approach to evaluate faculty members’research performance. AcademicMedicine, 2009, 84(11): 1610-1616.
[3]A.Fassoulaki, C. Sarantopoulos, K. Papilas, K. Patris, A. Melemeni. Academic anesthesiologists’ viewson the importance of the impact factor of scientific journals: a North Americanand European survey. Canadianjournal of anaesthesia, 2001, 48(10): 953-957.
[4]Problemsassociated with using the impact factor?http://www.researchgate.net/topic/altmetrics?ev=tp_pst_dtl_xkey, 2013.
[5]A.Jackson. Theimpact factor game: the rising impact factor of the British Journal ofRadiology–a success story?2014.
[6]M. O.Okoye. The Useof Impact Factor in the Appraisal of Academic Librarians in Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 2010: 351.
[7]C.Franzoni, G. Scellato, P. Stephan. Changingincentives to publish. scienceand engineering, 2011, 5: 6.
[8]E.Fr?mter, E. Br?hler, U. Langenbeck, N. Meenen, K. Usadel. The AWMF model for the evaluation ofpublished research papers in medicine. Arbeitsgemeinschaft derwissenschaftlichen medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (Working Group of theScientific Medical Specialty Societies). Deutschemedizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 1999, 124(30): 910.
[9]Debates: ImpactFactors. http://www.firstauthor.org/Downloads/Impact_Factors.pdf
[10]Y.Fujii. Assignmentof an impact factor to our journal. Journalof Medical Ultrasonics, 2010, 37(2): 39-39.
[11]What are yourviews on Impact Factor as a metric of journal quality?http://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_your_views_on_Impact_Factor_as_a_metric_of_journal_quality2, 2012.
[12]Sciencepublishing: The golden club. NATURE, 2013.
[13]V.Kumar, S. Upadhyay, B. Medhi. Impactof the impact factor in biomedical research: its use and misuse. Singapore Med J, 2009, 50(8): 752-755.

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